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Prognostic Role of Low-Skeletal Muscle Mass on Staging Computed Tomography in Metastasized Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Hans-Jonas Meyer
    Correspondence
    Address for correspondence: Hans-Jonas Meyer, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Leipzig, 49341/9717400 Leipzig, Germany.
    Affiliations
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
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  • Alexandra Strobel
    Affiliations
    Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany

    Profile Area Clinical Studies and Biostatistics, Halle (Saale), Germany
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  • Andreas Wienke
    Affiliations
    Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany

    Profile Area Clinical Studies and Biostatistics, Halle (Saale), Germany
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  • Alexey Surov
    Affiliations
    Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany
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      Abstract

      Background

      Low-skeletal muscle mass (LSMM) is defined as skeletal muscle loss, which can be assessed by imaging. Our aim was to establish the effect of LSMM on overall survival (OS) in metastasized colorectal cancer patients based on a large patient sample.

      Patients and Methods

      MEDLINE library, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases were screened for the associations between LSMM and mortality in metastasized colorectal cancer patients up to March 2022. The primary aim of the systematic review was to investigate the influence of LSMM on overall survival (OS) by means of the effect of measure hazard ratio. Fifteen studies were included into the present analysis.

      Results

      The included studies comprised 1744 patients. The frequency of LSMM was 46.2%. Associations between LSMM and OS were as follows: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94-1.91), P = .10 in univariable analysis and HR = 2.05 (95% CI 1.18-3.56), P = .01 in multivariable analysis. LSMM influenced OS in patients undergoing first-line chemotherapy, HR = 1.51 (95% CI 1.20-1.89), P = .0004. In patients undergoing second- and third-line chemotherapy, LSMM was not associated with OS, HR = 1.43 (95% CI 0.65-3.14), P = .37 Also, LSMM did not affect OS in patients with resection of hepatic metastases, HR = 0.93 (95% CI 0.70-1.24), P = .63. LSMM tended to affect progression-free survival, HR = 1.49 (95% CI 0.94-2.35), P = .09. LSMM did not predict treatment toxicity, odds ratio (OR) = 1.52 (95% CI 0.84-2.72), P = .16.

      Conclusion

      LSMM occurs in 46.2% of patients with metastasized colorectal cancers. LSMM is associated with OS in patients undergoing first-line chemotherapy. LSMM does not affect OS in second- and third-line chemotherapy and in patients undergoing resection of hepatic metastases. LSMM is not associated with progression-free survival and treatment toxicity.

      Keywords

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