- •Among academic radiation oncologists, medical oncologists, and colorectal surgeons, the traditional regimen of long-course chemoradiation, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy is now infrequently recommended for locally advanced rectal cancer.
- •Total neoadjuvant therapy has been widely adopted for locally advanced node positive rectal tumors with variable patterns of care with respect to sequencing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
- •Fractionation with long-course chemoradiation remains the majority; however, short-course radiotherapy is gaining acceptance, notably for mid- and upper rectal tumors.
- •Non-operative management after a clinical complete response in low rectal tumors has gained traction, transforming locally advanced rectal cancer from a once classically perceived surgical disease.
Materials and Methods
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